There are a number of different Internet Protocols that are important to understand. Some are part of the underlying inter-connected network of computers that make the internet possible, while other are for specific jobs (and work on top of the internet infrastructure) like HTTP.
- Email with POP3 & SMTP
- The use of MIME Types for document type identification
- The transfer of HyperText documents (and other files) with HTTP & the more secure HTTPS
- Underlying internet protocols like TCP/IP and UDP/IP
- File transfer with FTP & the secure SCP
- Command line "shell" consoles with the insecure Telnet and the Secure Shell SSH
- Distributed file transfer with BitTorrent
Some people also refer to standards like HTML and XML as protocols. However, we keep the distinction between markup languages (a standard way to format or "markup" content) and communication protocols (standard methods of sending messages between nodes on the internet).
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